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HIGH EARLY STREHGTH
A USERS MANUAL
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HIGH EARL Y STREHGTH
OR many years after the invention of portland cement
_ in 1824, and even after the building of the first mill in
the United States in 1872, many builders continued to use
natural cements. This may be attributed principally to two
causes: First, to the natural reluctance in those days to
change from accepted methods and customs, when people
were skeptical of new ideas; and second, to the slower methods
of disseminating such information, or in educating the public
and the builders to the superior advantages of portland cement.
Since its introduction in this country, the quality of port-
land cement has been steadily improved, due to refinements
in manufacturing methods which assure greater purity and
more uniform quality.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is a
further scientific advancement in the manufacture of port-
land cement. Its qualities and advantages have been thor-
oughly tried and proven. We predict that its further use and
acceptance will affect building and construction practices
as greatly as did the transition from natural cement to
The advantages and economies in the use of Marquette
High Early Strength Portland Cement will be readily appar-
ent to any one who will study the subject and apply it to
his own particular construction problems.
This booklet explains the purposes and uses of Marquette
High Early Strength Portland Cement under various classifi-
cations and from different viewpoints. These classifications
are treated in separate chapters for the reader's convenience,
and, since many of the basic advantages in the use of this
cement are applicable to all, a certain amount of repetition
has been found unavoidable.
MARQUETTE CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Marquette Building Union Planters Bank Building
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Purposes of Marquette
Why and How Should
"be used 11
Portland Cement means
to the Public . 13
to the Owner 16
to the Contractor 21
to the Stucco and Terrazzo Contractor 2 7
to the Engineer 29
> the Architect 39
to the Concrete Products Mam: cturer 4
in the Oil Field 48
to the Farmer 52
to the Home Owner 5
for Cold Weather Construction 58
Design of Marquette
Concrete Mixtures and
Recommended Construction Practices
Table 1— (With Graph) showing Compressive Strengths of
Marquette lliu'AfirTU Concrete .
Table 2— Recommended Water-Cement Ratios
Table 3 — Quantities by Volume of Materials
Table 4— Quantities by Weight of Materials
© 1936 Marquette Cement Mfg. Co.
plant of Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company as it was in 1898,
modern up to date plants of today at La Salle, 111., above, and Cape
Girardeau, Mo,, below.
The PURPOSES of
Marquette [Hq! jj Portland Cement
EVER since the Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company
was founded in 1898, its plant facilities, manufacturing methods
and products have constantly been improved and kept ahead of engi-
neering developments and the demand for new and improved products.
Marquette Cement has always been manufactured to exceed the
Standard Specifications and Tests for Portland Cement prescribed by
the United States Government and American Society for Testing
These specifications not only control the chemical composition
and certain physical characteristics of the finished product, but also
require that the cement produce certain strength at given periods.
Such test standards predetermine that concrete made with a given
cement will be of adequate strength to meet the requirements of the
concrete structural design, when the cement and satisfactory aggre-
gates and water are correctly proportioned and mixed to form a
concrete that is afterwards properly cured.
In addition to this it has been found necessary and economically
desirable in countless situations to secure this "adequate" strength
more rapidly than formerly, and thus reduce the delay and incon-
venience caused by waiting for ordinary concrete to harden suffi-
ciently to be usable.
As always, Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company was among
the first to recognize this need and it was a pioneer in the field of High
Early Strength cements. The American Society for Testing Materials
has recognized the demand and necessity for such a cement and a
Standard Specification for High Early Strength Portland Cement has
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was made
primarily to meet this requirement for a cement that will produce a
strength in 24 hours or less, equivalent to the 7-day strength require-
ment for regular portland cement.
All of these specifications have been made in the interest of public
safety, and have satisfactorily answered the purpose of most concrete
construction work in the past, where the strength of the concrete has
been the determining factor.
In late years, however, increasing consideration is being given in
the design of concrete mixtures to the importance of the factors of
workability and density and their relation to the durability of the
resultant concrete, by increasing its ability to resist the deteriorating
effects of exposure to water, frost, organic acids, alkalis and gasses.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement has also been
developed to meet rhese requirements, so that it not only makes a
24-hour Concrete that may be placed TODAY and used TOMORROW,
but also, because of its properties as a higher quality cement, produces
a more plastic and denser, hence more durable and stronger concrete.
As a result of this, and because of the fact that Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement so greatly surpasses the Standard
Specifications, its use will result in economies both in time saved for
the Owner in the earlier completion of the work (which is being
recognized by leading Architects and Engineers) and in cost saving for
the Contractor by expediting construction and by the easier handling
of the concrete due to its greater workability.
Marquette High Early Strength concrete used on this busy Chicago intersection
permitted removal of dangerous barricades in hours instead of days.
Marquette HJ^ffj Portland Cement
MARQUETTE High Early Strength Portland Cement is an
improved portland cement manufactured in the same general
manner as Marquette Cement. The various stages in the manufac-
turing processes however are more highly refined, producing a product
of greater effective fineness.
All strengths of all portland cements are attained by the chemical
combination of the cement with water. High early strength is attained
by speeding up this chemical combination of cement with water.
This may be done in three ways:
1. By having the cement finely and effectively ground.
2. By raising the percentage of lime in the basic composition.
3. By adding an accelerating admixture.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is produced by
the first method as it has been demonstrated that this is the best
method of manufacturing a high early strength cement that will
surely and uniformly produce the desired results without departing
from the well recognized relationships of chemical compounds in
Fineness of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is
measured by determining the surface area of the fine particles. The
greater the area of these particles coming in contact with water, the
more quickly will the cement and water combine to produce high
early strength and the
more completely will
they combine to de-
velop higher later and
Early Strength Port-
land Cement greatly
exceeds the Standard
High Early Strength
Portland Cement of
,« . . c • . The extreme density or Marquette High Early
tne American &OCiety Strength concrete insures the watertightness of this
for Testing Materials. pool built for the Methodist Assembly at Arcadia, Mo.
Parking lot f
• head of the
a nt H C I vdjf Compan CI
time pour - gular t-me*nt by u
Strength Portland C- mrnt
o, put into service days
Marqu^M^ High f.arly
Marquette Wjffi jj Portland Cement
'T^HE selection and proportioning of the materials in the com-
-*■ position of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement and
the effective fineness to which it is ground, produce the following
/. High Early Strengths and Higher Later Strengths.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement produces
concrete of sufficient strength under normal conditions to
permit its use in 24 hours or less.
This high early strength is not secured at the expense of later
strengths. On the contrary, concrete made with Marquette
High Early Strength Portland Cement continues to increase
in strength at relatively the same rate as regular portland
cement and shows greater strengths at all times.
During mixing and placing Marquette High Early Strength
concrete remains workable and plastic about the same length
of time as regular portland cement concrete.
2. Greater Density,
Because this cement is more efficient it will produce a denser
concrete than a like volume of ordinary portland cement,
other conditions being equal. This cement requires less water
to obtain a given consistency than regular portland cement,
thereby reducing the amount of water to evaporate and leave
air voids, consequently resulting in less porosity and greater
density. Dense concrete is impermeable, more watertight,
and more durable.
3. Greater Workability.
The third important characteristic is its extreme plasticity.
This cement produces a smoother mix, which not only trowels
and finishes more easily, but also produces a more workable
and easier flowing concrete, mortar or stucco. This is of
particular value to the contractor who is confronted with
any unusual problems of handling or placing.
WHY and HOW should
Marquette ffiffij Portland Cement
1. To obtain earlier use of structure.
2. To secure quicker re-use of forms.
3. To reduce cost of curing.
4. To make easier handling concrete.
5. To obtain earlier returns on the investment
6. To produce more durable concrete.
7. To meet emergencies.
8. To reduce freezing hazards in winter.
all of which
SAVE TIME AND MONEY
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement
requires no special treatment on the job. It may be
used the same as Marquette Cement.
to the PUBLIC
T^HE value of high early strength concrete for the safety and con-
venience of the public may be readily demonstrated. A striking
example would be the repaving of a fire station driveway or floor, which,
with the use of regular portland cement would be closed for a week or
more. With Marquette High Early Strength Portland cement the fire
department can be in service again in twenty-four hours or less.
When paving a street in a business section, the merchants as well as
the public would certainly benefit if each block could be opened to
traffic the day after it was completed. Paving between street car
tracks, at railroad crossings and streets being repaired can all be opened
for earlier use, causing considerably less inconvenience and danger to
the public by the quicker removal of barricades. Miles of detours can
likewise be eliminated by opening Marquette High Early Strength con-
crete to use in twenty-four
hours or less instead of divert-
ing traffic for a week or more.
Furthermore, all streets
intersecting another street
under construction are block-
ed and their use curtailed
unless the intersections are
promptly opened to traffic.
Surely the use of Marquette
High Early Strength Port-
land Cement will be amply
repaid by opening cross streets
promptly with a consequent When concrete work has to be ready in
reduction in detours, barri- e . mer * < f n £ ies ; Marquette High Early
. . . Strength Portland Cement is the answer, as
cades, and general inconveni- it was for these bleachers at the Hancock
ence and danger to the public. High School in St. Louis County.
Consider the great importance of putting back into use streets and inter-
sections, and of eliminating obstructions to unrestricted flow of traffic
in a period of hours instead of days especially as it affects the efficient
operation of such vital public services as policing and fire fighting.
Aside from convenience and safety, if there is any truth in the state-
ment that "time means money," an appreciable saving may be secured
by the earlier use of Marquette High Early Strength concrete in various
kinds of public works.
In public works the question of durability is important. This may
range from more watertightness or resistance to freezing and thawing,
to special conditions where a high degree of impermeability is necessary
to withstand the deteriorating influence of sewage or contaminated
Public works construction is a matter of public interest. Many
officials are aware of the advantages of expediting public improvements
and have used Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement not
only for greater convenience and safety, but also to more effectively and
economically build durability into concrete.
This grade crossing on the Northwestern Railroad in Batavia, Illinois, was opened to
traffic in a day's time by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement.
To assure resisting the abrasive action of heavy steel tired trucks, this floor in the
Aurora Metal Cabinet Company plant was finished with Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement.
Concrete pavement in the storage yard of the Chicago Pump Company had to be
in service quickly and the finished job has to stand up under the severest punishment.
Marquette High Early Strength concrete met these extreme requirements.
Marquette HEftf Portland
WHETHER the Owner of a concrete project be a State, Munici-
pality, School, Park, or Sanitary Commission, Railroad,
Utility, Manufacturer or Individual Property Owner, each will be con-
cerned with how the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement will bring about a required or desired result (not obtainable
with regular portland cement) in many situations, several of which
(a) In emergencies where a project must be available for use at the
earliest possible time.
(b) In any situation where conditions require maximum density,
impermeability, and watertightness.
(c) In improvements or repairs where the time element is important
because of public convenience, safety or interference with
(d) In earlier completion of a project which puts it into productive
use and secures earlier earnings on the investment.
Many examples can be cited to show the value and advantages of
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement but we believe its
economic value to the Owner may be more convincingly demonstrated
by showing what it cost NOT to use it in a specific instance.
Regular portland cement was used during the remodeling of a gas
station, where service was maintained during construction, which
included paving of drive-ways and reconstruction of the wash rack,
oil changing and greasing facilities. The drives were paved one half
at a time and each section was closed to traffic for seven days. During
the fourteen day period, when one or the other of the drives were
closed to traffic, the gasoline sales dropped 60%, equivalent to a daily
loss of $60.00, or a total of $840.00 in gasoline sales volume.
STRENGTH PORTLAND CB
Produt lion it lirdulrs
of flic beer that made
Milwaukee f amoui"
could not be loflg in
terrupt*- I it tin ^. hiiti
Brewery. Marqu* e
Hi di I arly h
-urete fl were IB
•er i ice 2 I i I lUTl «» let
The oil changing, greasing, washing, and service department of
the station had to be closed for a period of seven days, and the sales
loss amounted to $33.33 per day, or a total of $233.31 for this depart-
ment. This meant a total loss of $1,073.31 in sales volume for the
entire station based on average monthly sales.
Had Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement been used,
each section of the pavement could have been opened in one day,
causing interference with gasoline sales for only two days, or a loss of
only $120.00 in sales. The balance of the station could have been
opened in one day, reducing the sales loss to $33.33, or a total loss of
only $153.33, instead of $1,073.31.
The job required 110 barrels of cement, and the additional cost for
Marauette High Early Strength Portland Cement in this instance
would have been only a trifle over $50.00. By its use, twelve days
could have been saved in gasoline sales and six days in service depart-
Unlocked for freezing
weather threatened to
interfere with the
scheduled opening of
this Service Station in
Fulton, Kentucky* At
the owner's request,
Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Ce-
ment was used and the
station was ready for
business on time, de-
spite the weather.
Printing the news cannot be delayed and because delays are eliminated with
Marquette High Early Strength concrete, it was used for this motor foundation
by the Chicago Daily Times
This difference between the actual sales loss of $1,073.31 and the
sales loss of only $153.33 if Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement had been used, would have been $919.98 as shown below.
Actual Loss of Sales Volume:
14 days of Gas Sales @ $60.00 per day $840.00
7 days of Oil, etc., @ $33.33 per day 233.31
Loss in Sales Volume if Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement were used:
2 days of Gas Sales @ $60.00 per day $120.00
1 day of Oil, etc., @ $33.33 per day • 33.33
Total $ 153.33
Difference which could have been saved $ 919.98
This does not take into account the intangible loss of good will.
The saving could have been made by the expenditure of a sum which
would have been equivalent to less than Yi of 1 % of the total con-
The amount of time which can be saved on any job can be pre-
determined, and the owner can easily decide the value of this time,
so that the practical value of using Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement can be evaluated readily by the owner.
The above example proves the economy of Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement in one instance which can be multiplied
almost indefinitely; but in addition to economy the owner should take
into consideration the greater durability of concrete made with Mar-
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement due to its increased
density and impermeability.
i. General view of substation being pre
pared for moving
placing a lay
f additional floor support I
avi'i of concrett underneath.
5. \ rotary foundation show-
.ind shoring | ess
7. Building retting on
2. View underneath the building show-
tng rotary foundation and lally column
foundation on jacks.
4. Interior view showing large rotary
com 01 ters.
w r building showing eatt
all direct druma wi.ile supporting
slal> was pom id.
Buil< g being transit" «d
( r oni
W\ n t ower at l m Chicago had to be moved 17 f * < t 10 permit *tr*
widening quette High Early Strength I rtland Ct nt was Ihi material
s< I d for underpinning and for the concrete mat over whic h tins I IVE MILLION
POUM) load was moved to tin new location within 48 hours after placing.
I». Gooc H.nntl.Mn Company, lr,< p Contractors, reported "Your High
I m | Strength C nt left nothing to be desired and entirely fulfilled our I |Uire-
mi s, allowing us to reduce our time from an eijhl da\ schedule, carrying a
$100.00 a day penalt>. to forty
Marquette DJgJjjgf j| Portland Cement
means to the
" — "^^MISI ^J^
On Large Monolithic Structures
TO the contractor engaged in the building of Dams, Railroads,
Subways, Tunnels, Sewers and Bridges, Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement will appeal chiefly from the standpoint
Where large amounts of concrete are to be placed, the expense of
conveying and placing this concrete, whether it be chiefly mechanical
or labor expense, looms large in construction costs. While the grada-
tion and proportioning of the aggregates largely determines the work-
ability of any concrete mixture, it will be found that Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement will make a harsh mixture more
workable, and will increase the flowability or ease of handling of any
combination of cement and aggregate over regular portland cement.
This may mean that concreting towers will not have to be built so
high, or that chutes will cover a larger area, or that in many other
ways the concrete can be conveyed more cheaply, or it may mean
lower labor costs in placing because one man can handle more concrete.
In some phases of large construction work it will be found that the
high early strength feature can be used to decrease costs by making
it possible to strip forms and re-use them in l/7th of the time ordinarily
required. This early strength will also make it possible to save money
in the lesser time required for curing the concrete, which is particularly
true in freezing weather.
While the foregoing reasons may apply equally to the building
contractor, the greater workability of Marquette High Early Strength
concrete is of particular interest because of the difficulties often
encountered in prop-
erly placing reinforced
concrete in beams,
columns and other
segregation and the
formation of gravel or
stone pockets. Mar-
quette High Early
flows into place and
stays in place.
To insure rapid construction progress on this State
institution building at Algoa Farms, Missouri, Mar-
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used
for all structural members.
In certain types of
construction, for example in mills or warehouses, when concrete can
be placed TODAY and used TOMORROW, a great saving can be made
in the earlier re-use of forms.
The cost of protecting concrete buildings against freezing is con-
siderable. When the protection period can be reduced to 1 7th of the
time ordinarily required with regular portland cement concrete, not
only is the hazard of freezing reduced, but also the cost of protecting
Under many special circumstances or conditions, paving contractors
have found it to their advantage to use Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement. Cases in point are the closing of gaps or the building
of small stretches of pavement where considerable money is saved by
being able to finish up completely and get off the job in a matter of
hours instead of being forced to maintain barricades, cross-over bridges
at intersections, lighting and watchman service during a period of
days. Marquette High Early Strength concrete can be completed
and opened to use in 24-Hours or less.
Another illustration of the advantage of the use of this cement is in
connection with the desired completion of a pavement late in fall when
there is danger of freezing. Since Marquette High Early Strength
concrete passes the danger of freezing much more rapidly than if
regular cement is used, the hazard of frozen concrete is greatly mini-
mized and the cost of protecting against freezing is materially reduced,
or perhaps entirely eliminated.
In these cases as in many others, the slight extra cost to the con-
tractor is many times offset by the savings made in labor costs or by
reduction of the risks involved.
As Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will produce
a concrete as strong in 24 HOURS as regular portland cement will
produce in 7 DAYS and considerably stronger in 3 DAYS than regular
Portland cement in 28 DAYS, it is obviously not necessary to continue
the curing and protecting of the concrete during hot and dry weather
for the longer period required for regular portland cement concrete to
attain required strength. This will not only mean considerably less
material for covering, but also a decrease in labor cost of keeping
it wet over the longer period.
On Small Structures
The contractor who specializes in smaller concrete work, such as
foundations, sidewalks, driveways, pools, etc., will find Marquette
High Early Strength Portland Cement particularly advantageous in
enabling him to complete a job promptly and move his equipment
The features which affect economies in other forms of concrete con-
struction, namely, greater workability, quicker re-use of forms, shorter
curing period, and reduction of danger of free/mg, are also applicable
to the contractor specializing in these kinds of structures.
In addition to economy, he should give consideration to the improved
quality of his concrete work because of increased strength and greater
density. Another important consideration is the shorter time in which
the job can be put to use. All these factors contribute to the satis-
faction of the owner, and build for the contractor a reputation for both
quality and quick service.
It isn't necessary to tie up men, money, and equipment on a small job. This short
gap at Ottawa, Illinois, was paved and opened to traffic in LESS than 24-Hours
with Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement.
Time Saved for All Contractors
Whether the job be one requiring years to complete or one that can
be finished in a day, the time element often means the difference
between profit and loss. Rapid progress on any construction enter-
prise is essential to success. The use of Marquette High Early Strength
concrete may in various ways facilitate the progress of a job. On a large
project the fact that it can be used in 24 HOURS may permit the
additional use of equipment with resultant decrease in overhead.
In a concrete building the work of subcontractors may be started
that much earlier and their schedules be better co-ordinated, reducing
much of the confusion frequently encountered. Because of its high
early strength, greater workability and the lesser time required for
curing, the paving contractor can speed up his completion time, and
on small structures this time element is of considerable importance.
The significance of the time element is demonstrated in the construc-
tion of the pedestrian tunnel under Michigan Avenue in Chicago. In
the Spring of 1935 this work was completed with Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement in 117 hours less than the time
allowed. As there was a penalty and bonus clause in the contract
amounting to $25.00 per hour, this meant a bonus of approximately
$3,000.00 to the contractor, who might have incurred a penalty, if
regular portland cement had been used.
This tunnel was built to insure the safety of the public in reaching
the Oak Street Bathing Beach as crossing Michigan Avenue at the
street level was extremely hazardous, due to automobile traffic, which,
at this intersection, is probably heavier than at any other point in
As Michigan Avenue is the main artery from downtown Chicago to
the north side and the north shore suburbs, many thousands of autoists
were inconvenienced for a minimum period, which meant a saving
of thousands of miles of detour and thousands of hours to the motor-
Speed in placing this floor at Milwaukee was essential so Marquette
Portland Cement turned over a completed job 24-Hours
ATCree^Bay, Wisconsin, Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was
used to stucco thi, home in winter, because its pla.tic.ty made it eas.er^to wo
d its high early strength eliminated all danger of freezing after 24-Hours
The terrazzo floor in the Municipal Auditorium at St. Paul, is periodically flooded
and frozen for skating. The concrete had to be durable and watertight so
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was selected for the work.
Marquette Hjjj^j-flj Portland Cement
means to the ••••••••••••
STUCCO AND TERRAZZO CONTRACTOR
HERE is probably no work in which cement is used where cohes-
iveness and workability are such important factors as in the applica-
tion of stucco. These factors vitally affect the labor cost of the job,
which because of the nature of the work constitutes a large part
of the expense.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement makes a
smoother mortar or stucco which spreads with the least effort.
While its extreme plasticity, compared with regular portland cement,
is its chief advantage to the Plastering or Stucco Contractor, there
are many occasions where its high early strength also will be found
advantageous in speeding up the work. The greater density obtained
with Marquette High Early Strength stucco obviously makes it
more resistant to the elements and to all other deteriorating influences.
It can be used and finished and combined with mineral pigments for
coloring the same as any portland cement.
In terrazzo work, its greater plasticity and cohesiveness likewise
makes it possible to place it with greater ease and consequent saving
in time and labor. Its high early strength permits the contractor to
begin grinding and polishing much sooner.
High early strength does not mean premature hardening, as during
the early stages of hydration, it acts the same as regular portland
cement. The greater density of Marquette High Early Strength
mortar also decreases the amount of "fill-in" usually required,
which again means a saving in time and labor, as well as earlier
completion of the work.
Railroad terminals must be repaired and maintained with a minimum of delay and
inconvenience. This passenger walk for the C.M.St.P.&P. Railroad at Milwaukee
was opened for service less than EIGHT HOURS after Marquette High Early
Strength concrete was placed.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used in constructing this
roof slab at the La Salle Street Station, Chicago, to minimize public inconvenience
and maintain operating schedules and to secure durability.
Marquette H]^f|j Portland Ce
means to the ENGINEER
On Railroad Construction
WHETHER in charge of Construction or Maintenance, the Rail-
road Engineer is concerned with minimum disruption of operating
schedules. This requires that all work on the right-of-way be executed
on time. With concrete that can be used 24-Hours or less after placing,
there is ample assurance that such work will be finished ahead of nor-
mal time; or by the same token more concrete work may be scheduled
for a certain period with the assurance that it will be ready for service as
planned, in spite of the hazardous nature of much railroad construction.
This early strength feature, however, is not the only advantage
offered to the Railroad Engineer by Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement. Much of the concrete used by railroads is subjected
to extreme conditions of exposure, varying from the chemical action of
stack fumes to freez-
ing and thawing.
To combat these
forces demands con-
crete of maximum
density. The proper
design of concrete
mixtures will help to
accomplish this, but
Marquette High Early
Cement increases the
density of any con-
crete mix over regular The underpinning of this bridge for the Missouri
.« , . , Pacific Railroad at Belle Chasse, Louisiana, was con-
Portland cement be- structed and put into service in record time by the use
Cause of its effective of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement.
fineness and resultant plasticity so that with a properly designed mix
waterproof concrete will be obtained.
On Bridge Construction
The Engineer specializing in the design and construction of Bridges
will be interested in the possibilities offered by Marquette High Early
Strength concrete. Its earlier strength, making possible the quicker
removal of hazardous barricades and dangerous detours, means greater
public convenience and safety. Its higher later and ultimate strengths,
together with its greater density, insure the durability of the structure.
The shorter time required for curing is also a factor in opening a project
to earlier use, and in cold weather, minimizes the risk of freezing
and reduces the cost of curing.
The appearance of the finished structure is greatly improved in that
corners, lines and reliefs are more sharp and clean-cut because the
greater worability of Marquette High Early Strength concrete causes it
to flow into place much more readily and easily. It does not segregate
leaving unsightly pockets when the forms are stripped, and its greater
plasticity results in smoother and more pleasing finished surfaces.
This grade crossing of the C.B.&Q.
Illinois was back in service within
Strength Portland Cement was used
Railroad on the Batavia-Kaneville Road in
24-Hours because Marquette High Early
It saved miles of detours to the motorist.
was used for this
pump house and
project at the
Amory, Miss., to
insure dense, im-
By placing a deck slab on the River Des Peres Parkway overhead crossing in St.
Louis County with Marquette High Early Strength concrete, it was made ready
for use by the time the substructure had attained its proper strength.
On Highway Construction and Maintenance
Because the public, and principally the motoring public, is paying
for highway construction, it would seem plausible that public conven-
ience and safety should be considered in the building of highways.
The use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will permit
a highway or bridge to be opened to traffic a week or so earlier than
would be possible with regular portland cement, therefore the value
of the time saved may be compared in advance with the cost of the
saving of this time to ascertain whether conditions justify the
It should also be kept in mind that an improvement or replacement
which causes a detour over a low type road means that the cost of
driving is more than 33 } 3% greater per mile than the cost for the same
distance on concrete. This additional cost is further greatly increased
because detours are almost invariably two or three times longer than
the road under construction.
Although it is realized that repairs to concrete highways may usually
be made without closing the entire road to traffic, nevertheless the
inconveniences and hazards caused by one way traffic are considerable.
Dangerous barricades, detours and inconvenience to the public were eliminated
after 24-Hours by the use of Marquette High Early Strength concrete at tin'
railroad crossing on State Road 67, in Indianapolis.
Marquette High Early Strength con-
crete used in re-locating Highway 12
near Hudson, Wisconsin, minimized
barricade hazards and inconvenience.
The approaches to this bridge over the
Tennessee River on Highway 60 in
Kentucky were paved with Marquette
High Early Strength concrete so th»
bridge could be opened to traffic within
The dangers of one-way traffic during highway repairs are reduced to the mini*
mum when Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is used. Barricades
can be removed in less than 1 7th of the time ordinarily required.
Automobile accidents and fatalities are increasing, and, while bar-
ricading one lane of a pavement for repairs is not a principal contrib-
uting cause, nevertheless such conditions do cause many accidents
and should be reduced to the absolute minimum. This reduction can be
greatly aided by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement. In fact, the entire elimination of barricades at night, when
most of such accidents do occur, is not impossible. Patching and repair
work can be started in the morning and opened to traffic before dark,
when this high speed cement is used.
Patch filled before
Patching the Lincoln High-
way in Iowa in the morning
with Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement,
enabling it to be opened to
traffic the same day.
Patch ready for finishing.
Another intersection in Chicago where Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement answered the problem of making replacements with minimum public
inconvenience and danger.
On Municipal Construction
In addition to the foregoing paragraphs regarding the convenience
and safety of the motoring public, the Municipal Engineer recognizes
the value of the use of a street to abutting property owners, tenants and
the general public. In many cases this use will make the time element
a matter of such importance that even one day's saving of time in
opening a street to traffic, made possible by the use of Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement, may be worth considerably more
than the extra cost involved.
The greater durability of Marquette High Early Strength concrete is
a feature which merits attention in all concrete work placed in municipal
construction, and it will be found that in many cases an additional
expenditure, small as compared with the total cost of a project, will
pay dividends over a period of years in terms of longer life and in greater
freedom from recurrent expensive repair costs.
This durability is particularly desirable in such work as the construc-
tion of filter bed enclosures and other units of sewage disposal plants,
sanitary and storm sewers, water filtration and water supply plants
and municipal power plants, to mention but a few, and can be obtained
most effectively with Marquette High Early Strength concrete, because
of its greater workability and density.
The pump house for the Sewage Disposal Plant at Batavia, Illinois, is located a few
feet from the Fox River and below river level. It had to be watertight, so
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used.
Officials of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District of St. Paul, Minneso
assured of rapid progress, and dense, durable concrete that will resist the
of sewage by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement
STHHNijTH HOR 1L 4 N i) OB
Marquette UiENGTH Portland Cement
means to the ARCHITECT
THK . i. [vantages in the use ot on etc in the design i dcootl
of residences, schools, hospitals, pull - h igs, office b gs,
warehouses and i I »iics, arc receiving ra; in easing re< |
in the architecture! piofession. Its flexibility ;md i< y I i
structural and architt ural d tign, ec< in COnetn ftgtl
fireproofness and durability offer wide dtversi at n 1 , :al
application to many pmblcmsof i aetrui land desifc
Each of these desirable features is affc ted 1 the use ( I Marqi e
High Early Strength concrete FUxi y and adaptabil are
increased by its greater
u ■/ be brought about
by its superior work
ability and in the
■i Her use of the build
ing. Strength is in
creased at all periods
a rut durability is
I * itely affected by
The architect who
designs in concrete
especially where archi
tectural expression i
oncerned, is vitally
other things, m ex
actly reproducing, in
To speed construction and insure watertight concrete
for this underground passage between the State Capitol
and thf State Office Building at St. Paul. Minnesota,
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement
ipecihed and used.
the finished structure the design he creates. Surfaces of the desired
texture must be obtained and they must be free from unsightly pockets
or honey-comb. There must be no segregation in the concrete. Lines
and corners and fine and delicate architectural details must stand out
in sharp relief. The greater plasticity of Marquette High Early Strength
concrete materially aids in accomplishing these results.
In addition, the density and impermeability of Marquette High
Early Strength concrete are essential qualities for watertight basements,
roofs, swimming pools, tanks, industrial floors and platforms.
The Architect is also concerned with the early strength value of
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement as it results in:
1. Economies in the earlier completion of the structure.
(a) Their value to the builder or contractor.
(b) The earlier use by the owner.
2. The shorter time required for protecting and curing.
(a) Its importance in minimizing the danger of freezing.
3. Economies in construction due to:
(a) Saving in cost of forms because of earlier removal and
One other problem frequently confronting the architect is that of
minimizing the delay and inconvenience to the owner or occupants in
remodelling or making additions to a building, or in placing under-
pinning. With concrete that can be placed TODAY and used TO-
MORROW many hours and days of needless delay may be eliminated.
In fact, the high speed performance of Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement may offer opportunities to the Architect to recom-
mend certain changes, which under other circumstances would not be
considered practical by the owner, because of his preconceived idea of
the delay and inconvenience caused by ordinary concrete construction.
Marquette [^JjjgfH Portland Cement
means to the
CONCRETE PRODUCTS MANUFACTURER
AS in almost any other business, the manufacturer of Concrete
Products has to compete both with other products used for a similar
purpose and with other manufacturers making the same kind of prod-
ucts. To meet such competition successfully demands that within
certain limitations he produce the highest quality product at the lowest
possible cost. He must then constantly balance production, selling,
and other overhead costs against quality. If he can produce as good a
product at less cost this means extra profits because of production
economies. If he can make a better product without increasing produc-
tion costs he will make extra profits because of increased sales of such
better products. Surely then if he can increase quality and at the
same time decrease cost he profits from both the lower cost and from
the increased sales of superior products.
The use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement offers
this possibility to the manufacturer of all kinds of concrete products,
be they blocks, precast joists, tile, pipe, precast stone, architectural
details, imitation marble, burial vaults, culverts, posts, piles or
other special products.
The characteristics of Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement help to reduce costs in several different ways.
First, its high early strength, allowing quicker handling and use of
products, makes it possible to keep a smaller inventory of finished
products on hand. This smaller inventory requires less space for
storage, and space and buildings cost money whether rented or owned.
Less inventory also means less money invested in the labor and materials
which go into the finished products. These then tend to decrease the cost
of doing business. But as to whether the decrease will be sufficient to
This products plant at Waterloo, Iowa, uses Marquette High Early Strength Port-
land Cement in manufacturing pre-cast stone which successfully and profitably
competes with Bedford Stone.
more than offset the additional cost of Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement will depend upon individual plant conditions and
operating methods. That this is possible has been proven by others, and
each products manufacturer might well experiment and definitely prove
to his own satisfaction the amount of saving that may result.
The second way in which Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement saves money is in its help in building up sales, by being able to
produce and offer superior products for sale. If a manufacturer can
build up a demand for his products in preference to competitive prod-
ucts, because of their superior quality, it stands to reason that he will
sell more of them with no more selling effort. This means greater
volume and more rapid turnover with a proportionately smaller over-
head and sales expense per unit. Concrete products made with Mar-
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement are denser than similar
products made with regular cement. This impermeability means that
they will better withstand severe exposure conditions, be more nearly
waterproof, and better resist all deteriorating influences, all of which
are convincing selling arguments.
One other advantage is in filling emergency orders. Concrete products
can be quickly made and delivered with the least possible delay when
made with Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement.
STRHNirTH RORTLAND CH
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Pre-cast trim for this garage building and fire station in Waterloo, Iowa, were
manufactured and delivered on short notice because Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement was used.
> fHENOTH PORTLAND
Marquette H]^^|jj Portland Cement
means in the OIL FIELD
FROM the drilling of oil wells to the construction of Service
Stations, cement and concrete are used extensively in converting
crude oil in the ground to gasoline in the motor car. In all of these
operations speed is highly important from a money-saving standpoint.
Wells have to be drilled and capped as quickly as possible, just as cus-
tomers have to be served with the least possible delay and incon-
venience at the Filling Station.
Aside from the earlier use obtained with Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement, its greater plasticity with a given amount
of water, as compared to regular portland cement, is a decided asset in
oil well drilling. Its physical and chemical properties also produce an
impermeable concrete of maximum density, so advantageous for all the
uses of concrete in the petroleum industry.
An oil well is a producing plant; and the cement used in its con-
struction is a vital factor in the protection of the source of supply, in
the efficiency of the producing well and in the permanency of the
subsurface structure. Time is a most important element in the drilling
or repair of a well as an extra few days of shut-down, with the well
delayed or off-production, may make the cementing operation a costly
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement helps to eliminate
these delays in oil well operation by providing a grout or slurry that
will attain its strength days ahead of regular portland cement, and yet
not have an accelerated initial set, so frequently encountered by the
use of re-agents. Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement
during the first stages of hardening acts about the same as regular
These characteristics of high early strength without accelerated
initial set, greater workability and greater density, are of particular
value under such conditions as are described below.
The cementing of casing is one of the most important operations in
the drilling and completion of an oil well. This is especially true of
the water string which protects the producing zone from migration
of water or other fluids from above. With the deep wells now being
drilled, the long strings of even Grade D casing closely approach their
collapse strength. This cement therefore provides a reinforcement for
the pipe as well as secures a water shut-off; and the present trend is to
carry the cement up behind the string well beyond the point where a
suitable factor of safety is reached.
Every delay during drilling is costly and cement is frequently the
means for reducing shut-down time. Subsurface conditions naturally
vary but creviced formations which cause lost circulation can frequently
be overcome by the proper application of this cement, either with or
without other material. Caving is also a source of trouble which can
often be overcome by cement. In all such work, the more rapidly the
strength of the cement develops— the less will be the time lost.
Cement has long been used as a means of sidetracking and a high
early strength and increased plasticity is advantageous in speeding
up this operation. Under general conditions, the well is kept as nearly
vertical as possible; but since it will sometimes wander off its course,
it must be brought back. A cement plug placed at the point where it
starts off will sometimes be the quickest and easiest way of bringin
the hole back to vertical. In many cases the hole is enlarged at the
bottom before being filled with cement.
Redrilling operations — whether in a new hole to be sidetracked or
straightened, or in an old hole where a new position in the sand is
desired or other corrections have to be made — frequently provide an
opportunity for economy by using a high early strength cement plug.
The plugging off of bottom water can often be done by dumping
cement in the hole when no pressure is present. With modern equip-
ment, the cement can now be placed under any pressure and the
pressure maintained until the cement has hardened. Moreover, it is a
growing custom to cement behind as well as inside the liner if such pipe
is left in the hole. This insures a complete shutoff of water from below
and is especially necessary in plugging back operations where the
cement plug is carried up to near the bottom of an upper productive
There is an increased use of cement for repair work since special
equipment provides a means of placing the cement and keeping it
where it will be effective. Intermediate water sands are frequently
shut off by putting the cement behind the liner only at the place where
the water shows up, and thus protecting the oil sands above and
The shutting-in of high pressure wells that have gotten out of con-
trol has frequently been accomplished with cement. In many cases
the entire cellar has been filled with concrete. Present practices prob-
ably prevent such emergency measures since the first string of casing is
securely cemented and subsequent strings tied in with it by landing
heads. Also, it is becoming a universal practice to cement each string
as soon as it is landed. With proper high pressure fittings and blow-
out preventers a well can always be kept under control; and a string
of casing can be cemented even if the hole penetrates a high pressure
sand before the pipe is run.
For all of these operations the amount of water used in making the
cement slurry for oil well use naturally has considerable influence on
the strength of the grout. The lower the amount of water the denser
will be the slurry: and the thickest slurry that can be handled will give
the best job. In oil field practice, however, the conditions of a par-
ticular job to be performed may necessitate different water-cement
ratios. The average is about 5 gallons of water per sack of cement or a
water-cement ratio of about 44 per cent, but the fact that Marquette
High Early Strength Portland Cement does not require as much
water to secure a given consistency, as with regular portland cement,
enables it to attain greater density with equal plasticity using less
water, or equal density and greater flowability with a similar water-
In such construction as machinery and engine foundations, derrick
footings and storage tanks in the field, to the building of floors, drive-
ways, greasing pits, foundations, walls or stucco for the Filling Station
the early strength and other qualities of Marquette High Early Strength
Portland Cement are almost indispensable to the Oil Industry.
Marquette Bjjf jj Portland Cement
to the FARMER
BECAUSE of its permanence and adaptability, concrete has become
the outstanding building and repair material for farm structures.
No matter where it is used — for a foundation wall, for a barn floor or
barnyard pavement, for fence posts, or for a watering tank — concrete
is readily made and once placed is there to stay. Through the snow
and ice of winter, the rain and burning sun of summer, concrete lives
on indefinitely without decay, rot or warping. Neither termites nor
rats can eat it. Surely concrete is the ideal material for building
and repairing on the farm.
But because of the seasonal aspect of farming and nature's urgent
demands on the farmer's time, whatever building or improvements
he undertakes must be done in what is lightly termed as his "spare"
Marquette High Early Strength concrete was used to speed construction and
assure dense durable concrete to resist action of ammonia salts in this cow
barn at Taycheedah, Wisconsin.
time. This is either during the winter or during short spells of inclement
weather. If he is building of concrete, which is so applicable for most
farm improvements, Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement
will be found useful under both of the above conditions.
In the winter time its high early strength reduces the hazard of
freezing, because if the temperature has not dropped below 30 degrees
within 24 to 48 hours after the concrete was placed (assuming the
temperature to have been above freezing when placed), a further drop
in temperature will not affect it, as it has hardened sufficiently or
developed enough strength within that time to withstand further
freezing weather. This would not be the case with regular portland
cement concrete, which might be frozen and perhaps ruined any time
from a week to 10 days after being placed.
When weather conditions prevent or interrupt the regular farm work,
and because of this interruption some form of concrete improvement
is started, it is usually a decided advantage for the farmer to complete
it as rapidly as possible before it is necessary for him to work elsewhere.
Under such conditions it will be a distinct advantage to remove the
forms and continue with the work
the day after the concrete is placed,
instead of waiting for a week or more
for ordinary concrete to cure and
harden. The use of Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement,
under such conditions, will make this
Ordinary concrete, if placed in real
hot, dry weather, must be kept moist
and covered from 10 to 14 days, dur-
ing the curing period which usually
means wetting it at least once a day.
This is a nuisance in busy times. With
Marquette High Early Strength con-
crete this curing and protection may
be discontinued the second day after
the concrete is placed.
The farmer will also find its greater
workability will make it easier to
handle in the forms, requiring less
work; and the fact that it makes a
denser and more watertight concrete
...:n u« ~r -.-~~+-;~~l ^ j ..«.,«-«,».« :„ -~ Preserving silos with an inside coat-
will be of practical advantage in many ing of g, arquette H igh Early
Of the uses of concrete On the farm. Strength Portland Cement mortar.
Marquette ffijjj fj Portland Cement
means to the
IT is customary in building a home to accept the architect's judgment
and experience in all matters pertaining to architectural and structural
design, selection of materials and other technical questions involved.
This is proper and fitting because that is the architect's function.
However, you might reasonably ask him why he recommends a partic-
ular design or material, or ask his opinion as to the merits of some
other method or material.
In dealing with your architect, you have no doubt told him in
advance about the size and style of the house you want, and have also
stipulated certain features which you want embodied in your home.
Unless you have made a study of the subject, these preferences will
probably be limited to the appearance, arrangement, and comfort of
your home. In addition to these features, you should also be equally
concerned with its permanence, its serviceability, and its saleability.
You want a roof that will not leak, walls that will not crack, and a
basement that is watertight and easily kept clean. You want a founda-
tion that will stand against time and that will not be attacked by
termites. (Termites are constantly destroying wooden foundations of
homes and buildings, and their destructive activities are spreading
over wider areas every year.) You should consider the advantages of
a first floor of concrete to make a fireproof basement, as most residential
fires start in the basement.
Perhaps you are building one of the modern all concrete homes
which are becoming increasingly popular, but regardless of the amount
of concrete in your home, you will want all the concrete to be durable
At practically no additional cost, because of economies resulting
from its use, you can secure the advantages of the superior qualities of
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement, particularly for all
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used in the stucco work on
this home in Libertyville, Illinois, because its extreme plasticity and workability
assured the highest grade job.
exposed exterior concrete work and foundations as well. Your architect
or builder knows and will confirm to you the worth of denser, more
durable and watertight concrete. All these qualities may be obtained
most effectively with this cement.
Another advantage, if you are in a hurry to occupy your home, is
the saving in time accomplished by using Marquette High Early
Strength concrete, which attains its strength within twenty-four hours
after it is placed, under normal weather conditions, instead of the
week or more required for regular concrete to harden.
If your home is built in cold weather, ordinary concrete is apt to
freeze at any time within fourteen days after placing. This necessitates
either protection against freezing for this period, or incurring the risk of
getting an unstable concrete job. With the use of Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement, which causes the concrete to harden
within 24-Hours, beyond the possiblity of damage from freezing, this
risk is greatly minimized and the cost of protection from freezing is
also materially reduced.
For concrete improvements around the home, whether they be for
utilitarian purposes such as walls, steps, drives, walks and porch floors,
or for decoration such as sun dials, bird baths, pools and arbors,
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will make it easier
and more certain to get a first class job and one that will endure.
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The VALUE of
Marquette HIjjJJurTjj Portland Cement
for COLD WEATHER CONSTRUCTION
THERE are many reasons why it is desirable and valuable to start
or continue concrete construction in cold weather. A few such
reasons follow :
The owner avoids delay in getting into a new structure which was
started in late fall or early winter. He is given the advantage of the
earliest use of additions, or remodeling jobs, or forced rebuilding after
a fire. These savings of time mean money savings to owners.
Cold weather construction work is an advantage to labor because
it affords steady all year round employment.
The contractor gains by winter construction because it enables him
to maintain a permanent organization with a consequent reduction of
overhead expense. This also applies, to some extent, to the architect
Every day of delay in the completion of a needed improvement
means inconvenience and perhaps hazard to the general public,
especially in winter. Streets and sidewalks and other improvements
can be constructed or repaired to the advantage of the public in cold
weather. Park improvements, pools, etc., also can be built in cold
weather, thus assuring use in the spring and summer.
Winter construction with concrete can be just as satisfactory as
that placed in any other season, and the quality of the concrete is
just as good. The old time inhibition about concrete work in cold
weather was largely a matter of habit and custom and not one of
climatic necessity. Today much of such work is done in winter as a
matter of course, and the amount of this work increases every year
as the advantages and the relative ease and economy of doing it
become more generally understood.
A simple statement of the procedure necessary in cold weather
construction is that temperatures of 50 to 70° F. must be maintained
in the concrete mixture, both before and after placing, until it has
attained a degree of hardness that will prevent injury from freezing.
Obviously then, if a cement is used in the concrete mixture which
will bring about this necessary hardness in approximately 1 7th of
the time when regular cement is used, the period of time during which
protection from freezing is needed is reduced by just that much.
This results in substantial savings in cost of heating and protection.
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will accomplish
this saving of time and money. The effective fineness to which it is
ground, together with its high grade basic properties, cause it to
combine with the water in the concrete mix much more rapidly and com-
pletely than is the case with regular cement, hence its high early
For best results in cold weather construction with Marquette High
Early Strength Portland Cement, the water and aggregates should
be heated so that the temperature of the concrete when placed will
not be less than 70° F. nor more than 100° F. During the curing
period the concrete should be protected and the temperature main-
tained approximately at 70° F. but under no circumstances allowed to
drop below 50° F. Under these conditions the time required for
Marquette High Early Strength concrete to pass the danger of freezing
is reduced to a minimum and the total cost of concreting is brought
very closely in line with the cost when placed in warmer weather.
Except under extreme and very unusual conditions Marquette High
Early Strength concrete will pass this danger of freezing in 24 hours
or less, provided, of course, temperature of the concrete mixture is
maintained at approximately 70° F. both before and after placing.
In zero weather this six-foot conduit was built by the Water Department of St.
Paul, Minnesota. Such work demanded concrete of highest early strength and
greatest density. Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used.
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Marquette Hjjjjrj^flj Concrete Mixtures
and Recommended Construction Practices
AST research, both in the laboratory and in the field, has estab-
lished certain facts about concrete mixtures from which has
developed the following Water-Cement Ratio Law:
"For plastic mixtures, using sound and clean aggregates, the strength
and other desirable properties of concrete under given job conditions
are governed by the net amount of mixing water per sack of cement."
Previously this law was applied only to compressive strength but
later developments have proved that it also controls density, resistance
to wear and the bond between concrete and steel.
The law will be more readily understood if one thinks of cement and
water as a paste which, upon hardening, binds the aggregate particles
together to form a solid mass. The more water added to the paste
the more diluted it becomes, therefore weaker and less watertight
Since the strength and density of the concrete are directly dependent
upon the strength and density of the paste, it will be seen that to
dilute the paste is to reduce the strength and durability of the concrete.
It follows then that the procedure in the design of a High Early
Strength concrete mixture involves:
1. The selection of the proper Water-Cement Ratio which will give
the desired strength and durability for any particular age.
2. Determining the most suitable and economical combination of
aggregates which will give the desired workability with this
A High Early Strength Concrete Mixture designed in accordance
with the foregoing will provide:
1. Necessary strength,
2. Durability to resist the actions of the elements,
3. Workability to permit proper placing,
4. The most economical use of available materials, and will establish
a proper balance between these four essentials.
Gallons of Mixir
ig Water per Sack of Cement
5 6 7
GALLONS Of WATER PER SACK
TABLE and GRAPH showing Compressive Strengths of machine mixed Marquette
High Early Strength concrete in pounds per square inch at different ages with
various water-cement ratios, (U. S. gallons of water per sack of cement.)
RECOMMENDED WATER -CEMENT
HI EH " -
DEGREES OF EXPOSURE
1. In severe climates like in northern U. S., ex-
posure to alternate wetting and drying, freezing and
thawing, as at the water line in hydraulic structures.
2. Exposure to sea and strong sulphate waters in
both severe and moderate climates.
3. In severe climates like in northern U. S., ex-
posure to rain and snow, and freezing and thawing,
but not continuously in contact with water.
4. In moderate climates like southern U. S., ex-
posure to alternate wetting and drying, as at water
line in hydraulic structures.
5. In climates like southern U. S., exposure to
ordinary weather, but not continuously in contact
6. Concrete completely submerged, but protected
7. Ordinary inclosed structural members; con-
crete below the ground and not subject to action of
corrosive groundwaters or freezing and thawing.
Water-cement ratio, U. S. gal. per sack*
piles, thin walls,
dams of thin
*Surfacc water or moisture carried by the aggregate must be included es part of the mixing water
To obtain superior results with the use of Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement the following recommendations are made
as a guide in the selection of materials, design of concrete mixtures and
Any structure should be designed and all work carried out under
the supervision of a competent architect or engineer.
Shall be Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement.
Bank or pitrun aggregates shall not be used.
Shall be sand consisting of hard, strong and durable particles, well
graded from fine to coarse within the following limits:
Passing a % inch screen 100%
Passing a No. 4 Sieve 85-100%
Passing a 16 mesh sieve 45-80%
Passing a 50 mesh sieve 2-30%
Passing a 100 mesh sieve 0-5%
It shall be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities and
shall not contain harmful amounts of clay, shale, coal or other dele-
Shall be crushed stone, gravel or other approved material consisting
of hard, strong and durable particles, free from adherent coatings
and injurious amounts of clay, coal and other deleterious substances.
It shall be well graded from fine to coarse within the following limits:
Designated Percentages retained on Laboratory Sieves Having
Size Square Openings
2" iy 2 " 1" H" Vi' H" No. 4
2" to #4 0-5 30-65 70-90 95-100
\\/ 2 " to #4 ... 0-5 .... 30-65 70-90 95-100
1" to #4 0-10 40-75 90-100
%" to #4 0-10 45-80 90-100
2" to 1" 0-10 30-65 85-100
\y 2 " to %' ... 0-10 45-80 85-100
Shall be from an approved source and as used shall be clean and fit
for drinking. It shall be as close as possible to 70° F. and in no
case below 50°.
(a) Select the proper water-cement ratio for the strength required
at any particular age. (See Table 1)
(b) Select the proper water-cement ratio for the exposure condi-
tions. (See Table 2)
(c) Use the lower of the above two water-cement ratios.
(d) Trial batches are recommended as the best method to arrive
at the desired mix. Make up a few trial batches of different
proportions of the fine and coarse aggregate with the selected
water-cement ratio until the desired workability is obtained
and use that mix which weighs the most per cubic foot.
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For common construction purposes the proportions of cement, fine
and coarse aggregate will approximate 1 : 2 : 3. This will contain
approximately 6 sacks of cement per cubic yard of concrete and
should contain not more than 6 gallons of water per sack of cement.
All concrete shall be mixed continuously for 114, minutes after all
materials, including water, are in the mixer drum.
Concrete shall be placed so that it may be worked into its final
position with the least amount of rehandling. At day-to-day con-
struction joints, or when fresh concrete is placed on concrete already
hardened, the old surface shall be clean, rough, free from any form
of laitance, and wetted. A rich grout of cement and sand shall be
brushed into the old surface immediately before the fresh concrete
is placed in contact with it.
C u tin g
All concrete shall be kept moist and protected from drying out too
rapidly during the early part of the period in which it is attaining
its designed strength. The temperature shall be kept as close as
possible to 70° F. and in no case allowed to go below 50° F.
The temperature of the water and aggregates shall be such that
the temperature of the concrete when placed shall be as close as
Dossible to 70° F. and shall in no case be below 50° F.
WEARING OR TOP COURSE FOR FLOORS
Proportions — 1:2^ (using sand) or 1:1:1V£ to 1:1:2 (using coarse
Thickness — 1 inch minimum.
Grading of Aggregates —Clean, sharp sand passing 100% through a
34 inch screen with not more than 20% through a No. 50 screen,
and not more than 3% through a No. 100 screen. Coarse aggregate
passing % inch screen.
Consistency — The mortar shall be the driest possible to work with
a sawing motion of the strikeboard. This will require about 3J^
gallons of water per sack of Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Mixing — Not less than 2 minutes after materials are in mixer drum.
Placing — This course shall be placed immediately after mixing and
deposited on the base concrete before it has appreciably hardened,
being brought to the established grade with a strikeboard.
Finishing— In about 2 hours thereafter it shall be worked with a
wood float thoroughly compacting it and providing a surface free
from depressions or irregularities. This time shall elapse to permit
excess water to evaporate from the surface and enable the concrete
to partially harden, preventing drawing to the top the finer particles
of cement, sand and excess water from the body of the concrete. Dry
cement or a mixture of dry cement and sand musr not be sprinkled
on the surface to absorb moisture or hasten the hardening. The
finisher must wait until any particular section is ready to trowel
and then complete the steel troweling in one continuous operation
as the successive areas of floor become ready. Avoid excessive
NEW TOP COURSE ON OLD BASE SLAB
Preparation of Slab— The surface of the old base slab shall be thor-
oughly roughened by picking or other means and cleaned of all
dirt and debris. Scrub surface with a 20% solution of muriatic
acid and then remove all traces of acid with a stream of water from
a hose. The slab shall be thoroughly moist but free from film or
pools of water. Next Marquette High Early Strength Portland
Cement shall be dusted onto and thoroughly brushed into the old
prepared surface immediately before the wearing or topping course
is applied insuring a thorough bond. This shall also apply in any
case where it has not been possible to place the wearing course
before the base course has hardened.
Curing of Floor Surface — Concrete shall be kept moist and not
permitted to dry out for 24 hours after placing.
Proper flashing should be used at every place where it would be
possible for water to get behind the stucco. In general, the construc-
tion shall protect the surface against excessive concentrated water
flow, horizontal projections being provided with overhanging drips
and watertight joints.
Reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal or wire fabric, with
openings large enough to permit complete embedding of the rein-
forcing under conditions of actual practice.
Mortar for scratch coat shall be of 1:2^ proportions, and for second
coat 1 :3 proportions. The surface of each coat shall be cross-scratched
and cured properly for as long a time as possible before the application
of the following coat. This is to seal shrinkage cracks which some-
times occur. The finish coat shall provide only color and texture to
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement shall be used
and finished and combined with mineral pigments for coloring, the same
as regular portland cement.
Further and more detailed information on the
use and advantages of Marquette High Early
Strength Portland Cement under any unusual
conditions, or in connection with the design of
High Early Strength Concrete mixtures, selection
of materials, etc., may be obtained by submitting
the particular problem to the Service Department.
MARQUETTE CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Marquette Building Union Planters Bank Building